Netherlands Study of Children with Aggression
A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the Netherlands of children who showed intermediate to high levels of aggression. The study included 141 boys from regular education classrooms (chosen because of high levels of aggression), and boys that were already referred to special classroom contexts because of their behavior disorders (mean age = 7.2 years). The PATHS® curriculum was provided by teachers over a one-year period.
After one school year of intervention there was a significant reduction in aggression in the children who had received the PATHS® curriculum (p<.01). Further analysis showed that the significant effects were found for reactive aggression (aggression that is impulsive and reactive to the behavior of others), but not for proactive aggression (predatory and intentional). Children showed greater reductions in aggression in classrooms in which teachers implemented with higher quality (Louwe, van Overveld, Merk, Orobio de Castro, & Koops, 2007).